Everybody of us must
be very well aware of the number 0 in the counting system. We know that this number
zero increases the value of a digit when placed next to the any number but when
placed before any number makes no sense. Moreover, when multiplied or divided
by any number, the result comes out to be zero. In all, we cannot deny this
that this number 0 is a magical invention in our number system. Let us see the
story behind its invention.

The number 0 is the
smallest non-negative integer immediately
preceding 1 . However, this may or may not be considered a natural number, but actually
it is a whole number so considered as a rational number and a real number (as
well as an algebraic number and a complex number).

The number 0 is
neither positive nor negative, it lies in the middle of a number line. It
cannot be prime because it has an infinite number of factors and cannot be
composite because it cannot be expressed by multiplying prime numbers (0 must
always be one of the factors).

**Zero is an even number because it is divisible by 2. Zero is a number which quantifies a count or an amount of null size. It is believed that zero was identified before the idea of negative things (quantities) that go lower than zero was accepted.**
Sumerians were the first people in the world to develop a
counting system 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. The Babylonians got their number
system from the Sumerians. Zero was invented independently by the Babylonians,
Mayans and Indians. In the Sumerian system, number system was positional that
is the value of a symbol was evaluated on its position relative to other
symbols.

During Akkadian Empire, the Sumerians’ number system passed to
the Babylonians around 300 B.C. There a symbol was assigned which indicate
clearly a placeholder with the agreement of scholars to signify that there is
an empty space just like to signify that in the number 2,025, there is no
number in the hundreds place. The Babylonians added a symbol of double angled
wedges to represent the empty column due to the confusion when they left an
empty space in their cuneiform number system. However, they never developed the
idea of zero as a number.

By 130 AD, Ptolemy, influenced by Hipparchus and the
Babylonians, was using a symbol for zero i.e. a small circle with a long
overbar within a sexagesimal numeral system. Another zero was used in tables
alongside Roman numerals by 525 AD but it was used as a word,nulla meaning
"nothing", not as a symbol. When division produced zero as a
remainder, nihil, also meaning "nothing", was used. The initial
"N" was used as a zero symbol in a table of Roman numerals by Bede or
his colleague around 725 AD.

Using an empty space in tabular arrangements or the word kha
"emptiness” is known to be used in
India from the 6th century. The glyph for the zero digit was written in the
shape of a dot, and consequently called bindu ("dot"). The dot had
been used in Greece during earlier ciphered numeral periods.

The concept of zero first appeared in India around 458 AD. Poetry
or chants were used for mathematical equations rather than symbols. In 498 AD,
Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata stated that "sthānāt sthānaṁ
daśaguṇaṁ syāt;"i.e. "from place to place each is ten times the
preceding," which is the origin of the modern decimal-based place value
notation.

In 628 AD, another Hindu astronomer and mathematician named
Brahmagupta developed a symbol for zero that was a dot underneath numbers. He wrote
rules for reaching zero through addition and subtraction, and the results of
using zero in equations. This was the first time in the world that zero was
recognized as a number of its own, as both an idea and a symbol.

Mathematicians normally do not assign a value when a zero
divided by zero, whereas computers and calculators sometimes assign NaN, which
means "not a number." Moreover, non-zero positive or negative numbers
when divided by zero are either assigned no value, or a value of unsigned
infinity, positive infinity, or negative infinity.

An Italian mathematician Fibonacci used zero to do equations
without an abacus, then developed the most prevalent tool for doing arithmetic.
This development was highly popular among merchants, who used Fibonacci’s
equations involving zero to balance their books.

*The number*zero is not the same as the

*digit*zero, used in numeral systems using positional notation. Successive positions of digits have higher weights.

By the 1600s, zero was used fairly widely throughout Europe.
It was fundamental in Rene Descartes’ Cartesian coordinate system and in Sir
Isaac Newton’s and Gottfried Wilhem Liebniz’s developments of calculus.
Calculus paved the way for physics.

So we can say invention of zero solves out
many problems in mathematics, physics and in many other field. It was really a
great invention.

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